On Farm Trials

Kharif 2019

1.Title: Assessment of efficacy of some curative measures for ovulatory disturbance in repeat breeding cows under expensive system of management under Red Lateritic Zone of Purulia District, W.B.

Thematic Area: Livestock Production & Management (Dairy Management)

Problem Diagnosed: The average net return from the diary owner is low in this district due to low conception rate of dairy animals. Abnormalities in ovulation i.e; delayed ovulation & an ovulation due to non-releasing the ovum from Graffian Follicle (GF) of the mature ovary leads to repeat breeding. Manually rupture of the Graffian Follicle followed administration of hormone had positive effect on ovulation conception and increase rate in repeat breeding cases.

Important Cause: Low conception rate in AI in dairy animals due to abnormalities in ovulation and hormonal disturbance.

Production System: Extensive System

Technology for testing: Assessment of the effect of manual and hormonal treatment for increasing the conception rate of repeat breeding cases in dairy animals under extensive system of management under Red & Lateritic Zone of Purulia District, W.B.

Existing Practice: Dairy animals mainly reared through extensive system of management. During oestrous natural service or artificial insemination was done at late oestrous stage. Sometimes antibiotic treatment was provided during repeat breeding cases.

Hypothesis: Per rectum manual rupture of Graffian Follicle along with rectal administration of Progesterone @ 500mg/ animal (One just after A.I. and next 4 days after A.I.) may increase the conception rate in case of repeat breeding cases of dairy animals.

Treatment:

Farmers Practice: Insemination was done at late oestrous.

Technology Option I: Per rectal manual rupture of Graffian Follicle in early oestrousand insemination during late hour’s i.e; at 18th to 20th hours of oestrous.

Technology Option II: Per rectal manual rupture of Graffian Follicle in early oestrous  following by AI at 10th to 12th hours  of oestrous.

Technology Option III: Per reetal manual rupture of Graffian Follicle in early oestrous along with hormonal treatment i.e; 17 alpha hydroxyl Progesterone @ 500mg /animal (One just after A.I .and next 4 days after A.I.).

Critical Inputs: Hormone (Progesterone)

No. of replication: 8

Unit Cost: Rs. 400/animal

Total Cost: Rs. 3200

Monitoring Indicators:

  • Percentage of conception rate
  • Length of gestation period
  • Length of Dry Period.
  • Benefit cost ratio.

Technology Source: Dept. of Veterinary Gynaecology, WBUAFSc, Kolkata

2. Title: Assessment of the effect of feeding kitchen waste with or without Rice waste over the concentrate mixture on performance of growth of indigenous pigs under extensive system of management under Red & Lateritic Zone of Purulia District, W.B.

Thematic Area: Livestock Production & Management (Feed Management)

Problem Diagnosed: Pig rearing on conventional concentrate feeding in largely non-remunerative. Sources like kitchen waste and rice waste as a nutritional requirement will reduce either cost of feeding as alternative cheap source.

Important Cause: Conventional concentrate feeding in pig is hugely non-remunerative

Production System: Extensive System

Technology for testing: Assessment of the effect of feeding kitchen waste with or without rice waste as unconventional cheap feed source on growth performance and economic feeding of indigenous growing pig.

Existing Practice: Pigs mainly reared through extensive system of management. They are often feed the concentrate mixture containing CP-18.1% and MDE-3.28 Kcal/mg consisting of crush Maize54%, Wheat Bran 20%, G.N. Cake 19.5% , Rice Meal 5%, Mineral & Vitamin 1% and Common Salt 5%,.

Hypothesis: Replacement ofconcentrate mixture with kitchen waste on Dry Matter basis and feeding for 4 months will increase the growth performance and economics of Pig rearing.

Critical Inputs: Nil

No. of replication: 8

Unit Size: Pig Farmer (5 pigs/ unit)

Unit Cost: Nil

Total Cost: Nil

Treatment:

Farmers Practice: Growth concentrate mixture (available in the market)

Technology Option I: Total replacement of concentrate mixture by kitchen waste on DM basis and feeding for 4 months.

Technology Option II: Total replacement of concentrate mixture by rice waste on DM basis and feeding for 4 months.

Technology Option III: Total replacement of concentrate mixture by 50% kitchen waste and 50% rice waste on Dry matter basis and feeding for 4 months.

Monitoring Indicators:

  • Body weight gain at 6 months( kg/animal)
  • Feed Conversion Ratio(FCR)
  • Benefit Cost Ratio(B:C ratio)

Technology Source: Dept. of Animal Nutrition, WBUAFSc, Kolkata

3. Title: Assessment of different weed management strategies in direct seeded Rainfed Rice in bunded uplands (Baid Khet) of Red laterite tracts of Purulia, West Bengal during Kharif season.

Thematic Area: Crop Production (Weed Management)

Problem Area:  In Purulia out of total 2.72 lakh ha. under Kharif paddy  about 60 % is occupied by upland where even after introduction of HYVs and Hybrids  poor crop yield (2.2-2.5 t/ha) is a regular phenomena. Delayed transplanting and sometimes insufficient rainfall for land preparation brought down the overall production of Rice in the District.

Important Cause:- Although monsoon breaks between 7-15 June and farmers resort to sowing seeds for upland rice between 15-20th June, our experience reveals that transplanting could never be done between 25thJuly and 5th  August in Normal Rainfall year. In years of abnormal rainfall it may extends upto end of August as farmers always try to transplant Rice under any circumstances as it is the only crop for most of the farmers and the major source of fodder. But even after all such efforts sometimes Farmers have to leave the field due to “very erratic rainfall pattern” that makes transplanting impossible.

As a result, famers have to transplant either over aged seedlings susceptible to pest and disease attack or left the field uncultivated which ultimately brought down the productivity and overall production of the District.

To address this issue we have tested the feasibility of DSR technique for the last three years and the yield level of DSR are comparable or even higher with good management practices to the CT-TPR in some of ours observation. Although, DSR technique have been emerged as an alternative crop management method against imminent water crisis, climbing labour cost and labour scarcity to increase water productivity, system sustainability and profitability; high weed infestation is a major constraint for broader adoption of DSR. Weed growth reduces grain yield in the range of 30-70 %. 

Therefore, adequate weed management strategies including identification of herbicides that are effective against a wide spectrum of weeds needs to be adopted.

Production System: Rice – Fallow – Fallow

Micro Farming situation: Rainfed bunded upland, season- Kharif, Soil type – sandy loam textured, acidic in nature (pH 4.8 – 5.8) low in available phosphate, potash and poor in organic matter content.

Technology for Testing: Different weed management strategies in direct seeded Kharif Rice.

Existing Practice:Farmers transplant aged seedlings (40-50 days old) up to mid August and apply 40:30:30 Kg/ha N:P:K as basal followed by pre emergence application of Pretilachlor 50% @ 500ml/acre at 1-2 DAS and 20 Kg N/ha as top dressing at 30-35 DAS.

Hypothesis: Experiments conducted in different parts of the country shows, by adopting direct seeding techniques with an effective and sustainable weed control strategy, the farmers could increase the productivity, reduced cost of cultivation by, increased the cropping intensity and earned an additional income with less effort. These technologies also helps in timely sowing under less rainfall situation, conserves soil moisture and requires less water, saves tillage cost and cost of labour in times of scarcity and the soil is protected from erosion due to the retention of surface residues and reduce organic matter depletion.

Objective: To assess the performance of different strategies in managing weeds in Direct seeded Rice over farmers practice on yield of Rainfed Rice during Kharif season

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: Farmers transplant aged seedlings (40-50 days old) up to mid August and apply 40:30:30Kg/ha N:P:K as basal followed by pre emergence application of Pretilachlor 50% @ 500ml/acre at 1-2 DAT and 20 Kg N/ha as top dressing at 30-35 DAS.

Technology option – I: Direct seeding (line sowing) using zero tillage Machine and fertilization as per farmers Practice + Bispyribac sodium @ 25g/ha a.i. at 25 DAS

Technology option – II: Direct seeding (line sowing) using zero tillage Machine and fertilization as per farmers Practice + Pretilachlor @ 750 g/ha (PE 0-3 DAS) followed by Bispyribac sodium @ 25g/ha a.i. at 25 DAS.

Critical Inputs: Seed, Fertilizers, Herbicides.

Unit Size: 0.2 ha

No. of Replication:- 10 Nos.

Unit Cost – Rs. 1500.00

Monitoring indicators: a) Periodic Weed population and diversity of weed flora/unit area b) No. effective tillers/m2, c)No. of grains/ panicle, (d)‘1000 grain wt.(g), (e) yield (q/ha), (f) Gross cost (Rs./ha), (g) Net Return (Rs./ha), (h) B:C

Source of Technology: All India Coordinated Research Project for Dryland Agriculture, ICAR- Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India

4.Title: Standardization of recommended crop management strategies for improving the productivity of Sugarcane in Red lateritic tracts of Purulia, West Bengal.

Thematic Area: Crop Production (Integrated Crop Management)

Problem Area: In Purulia Sugarcane is cultivated in about 886 ha., production 38744 MT and Av. productivity is 437 q/ha. Sugarcane is the major crop after Rice in about 12 moujas of Arsha Block in the foothill of Ayodhya Range (lies between 23°20′ and23°15′  North Latitude and 86°15′ and 86°5′ East Longitude ).In this Patch, Sugarcane is grown as a rainfed crop following in situ soil moisture conservation technique for the last 100 years or more. Here planting of sugarcane usually starts from 15th March and continuous upto 20th April and harvested during  Feb to 15th  March. From 1975 onwards they are growing Co-527. For the last 15 years they are observing gradual decrease in yield (80-100 t/ha to 40-50t/ha).Increased pest and disease problem that ultimately brought down their profit margin. Low profit leads to shifting to other less remunerative and new crop for the farmer..

Important Cause:- a) Due to continuous cultivating the Co 527 for last 30-40 years quality of planting material deteriorated. Continuous cultivation leads to heavy insect pest and disease problem. Red Rot Infection starting from seedling to maturity. White ant and early shoot borer attack during initial growth stage. Borer attack (internode and top bore) starts 1-1.5 month after planting.

  1. b) Heavy weed infestation leads to 8-9 weeding that not only involves high labour cost and also reduce fertilizer use efficiency.
  2. c) Poor stand establishment due to non-availability of Rain and High Temperature immediately after planting.

Production System: Sugarcane – Fallow

Micro Farming situation: Rainfed upland , season- year round (April – March), Soil type – sandy loam textured, acidic in nature (pH 4.8 – 5.8) low in available phosphate, potash and poor in organic matter content.

Technology for Testing: Different Crop management strategies in Sugarcane.

Existing Practice: Farmers plant three budded setts end to end of c.v. Co- 527 without sett treatment in shallow furrows 75 cm  apart drenched by Chlorpyriphos and fertilized with IFFCO 10:26:26 @ 225 kg/ha followed by two top dressing with IFFCO 10:26:26@ 225 kg/ha at 45 DAP and @ 112.5 kg./ha at 90 DAP respectively. Hand weeding 7-8 timed at 15-20 days interval.

Hypothesis: Experiments conducted in different parts of the country shows, by adopting package of practices recommended by SBI, Coimbatore, the farmers could increase the productivity, reduce cost of cultivation and earn an additional income with less effort. These technologies also helps in timely sowing under less rainfall situation, saves cost of labour in times of scarcity.

Objective: To assess the performance of different strategies in managing the sugarcane crop in Red and lateritic tract of Purulia, West Bengal.

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: Farmers plant three budded setts end to end of c.v. Co- 527 without sett treatment in shallow furrows 75 cm apart drenched by Chlorpyriphos and fertilized with IFFCO 10:26:26 @ 225 kg./ha followed by two top dressing with IFFCO 10:26:26@ 225 kg./ha at 45 DAP and @ 112.5 kg./ha at 90 DAP respectively. Hand weeding 7-8 timed at 15-20 days interval.

Technology option – I: Planting three budded setts end to end of c.v. Co- 0238treated with Carbendazim + Mancozeb @ 2gm per lit of water, in shallow furrows 1 m  apart drenched by Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 S.L @ 180 ml in 300lit.of water per acre and fertilized with only Phosphate @ 100 kg./ha followed by top dressing at 30,60 & 90 DAP with Nitrogen and Potash @ 50 kg and 33 kg/ha every time +Pre emergence (2-3 days of planting) application of Atrazin 50% @ 0.85 kg in 160 litres of water per acre + Two post emergence (30 DAP & 60 DAP) application of Metribuzin 300 gm + 2, 4 D Amine 1.5 litre in 200 litre of water per acre +  application of Forate 10G @ 10 kg per acre at 60 DAP .

Technology option – II: Planting Settlings raised from sugarcane buds in Nursery of c.v. Co- 0238 with same package of practices as Technology Option I

Critical Inputs: Planting material, Fertilizers, Agrochemicals.

Unit Size: 0.13 ha

No. of Replication:- 10 Nos.

Unit Cost – Rs. 3500.00

Monitoring indicators:

  1. a) Cane Girth (mm) b) Cane Height (cm) c) No. Inter node /Plant d) Millable Canes/ ha e) Cane Yield /ha(f) Gross cost (Rs./ha), (g) Net Return (Rs./ha), (h) B:C

Source of Technology: ICAR- Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore

5.Title: Assessment of the effect of seed hardening with organics on seed quality of Black gram during Kharif season under rainfed unbunded upland situation of Red & Lateritic Zone of Purulia District.

Thematic Area: Crop Production (Seed Production)

Problem Diagnosis: Importance of good quality seed has been very important for well recognized successful production of any crop especially in pulses. Black gram being an important pulse crop of dry region, hydration and dehydration of seed in this crop assumes importance to combat moisture stress during germination in field. Recently beneficial effect of seed in vigouration with organics has also been well correlated to maintain vigour and viability of seed. The technique of pre-conditioning of seeds was, therefore developed to mitigate various adverse effects (Chittapur and Kulkarni, 2014). Therefore, the present investigation to be carried out to know the effect of organics on germination, seedling, vigour in Blackgram.

Important Cause: Despite the high yielding potential and various advantages of Blackgram, the yield per unit area of the crop is low in Purulia. Poor germination is one of the main hindrances limiting the production of Black gram. Lack of moisture in the top soil at the time of seed sowing is one of major cause poor crop stand & yield . The use of Black gram seeds of low physiological quality is a common practice under Red & Lateritic Production system, leading to inadequate plant population in the field also.

Production System: Black gram based production system (Black gram-Fallow-Fallow)

Micro-farming system:  Unbunded rainfed uplands, season Kharif, soil type: Coarse textured, acidic, low in available Phosphate, Potash, Calcium & very poor in organic matter, suffering from periodic drought at critical growth stages.

Technology for testing: The present investigation to be carried to know the effect of organics for improving germination & field emergence of Kharif Black gram.

Existing Practice: Farmers grow Black gram (without pre-soaking) by broadcasting of seeds with a depth of sowing 5-10 cm with a seed rate of 20-25 kg/ha.

Hypothesis: The Black gram seeds were pre-soaked in the Vermiwash/ Cow urine/Normal water above mentioned solutions separately for 1 hour in 1:2 proportions followed by drying for 7 days under ambient conditions to original moisture content. The rationale is that sowing soaked seed decrease the time needed for germination and allow the seedling to escape soil physical conditions & aims to reduce the time of seedling emergence, as well as synchronize and improve the germination and field emergence percentage.

Objective: To study the influence of different method of pre-soaking with organics on germination and field emergence of Black gram.

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: Farmers grow Black gram (un-soaked) by broadcasting of seeds with a depth of sowing 5-10 cm with a seed rate of 20-25 kg/ha.

Technology Option-I : Vermiwash (The Black gram seeds were pre-soaked in the above mentioned solutions separately for 1 hour in 1:2 proportions followed by drying for 7 days under ambient conditions to original moisture content).

Technology Option-II: Cow urine (The Black gram seeds were pre-soaked in the above mentioned solutions separately for 1 hour in 1:2 proportions followed by drying for 7 days under ambient conditions to original moisture content)

Technology Option-III: Normal water (The Black gram seeds were pre-soaked in the normal water separately for 1 hour followed by drying for 7 days under ambient conditions to original moisture content).

Critical Inputs: Seed

Unit Size: 0.13 ha.

No of replication: 10

Unit Cost: Rs 600.00

Total Cost: Rs. 6,000.00

Monitoring indicators: Germination %, Field emergence (%), Yield (Q/ha), Gross Return (Rs./ha), Net Return (Rs./ha), B:C ratio.

Source of Technology: Arjun Sharma and Deshpande, V. K., 2014, Effect of pre-soaking of Black gram seeds with organics on seed quality. Karnataka J. of Agric. Sci., 19: 396-399.

6.Title: Assessment of soil test based fertilizer recommendations for Kharif Black gram under red and lateritic soils of Purulia District of West Bengal

Thematic Area: Soil Health & Fertility Management (Integrated Nutrient Management)

Problem area: Total area and productivity of Kharif Black gram in Purulia District is 1512ha and the average yield is 5.6 q/ha and the crop is grown in the unbunded uplands during kharif season. Among the various constraints for low productivity of kharif Black gram, less and imbalance use of fertilizers is one of the main reason related with lower productivity of Black gram. Farmers of this district apply only the ash and they are not following neither blanket recommendations given by the State Agriculture Department nor as per the recommendations done by Soil testing of a particular plot.

Important causes: Fertilizers play a pivotal role in increasing production as the crop yields may be increased considerably by using appropriate doses of fertilizers. The soil health status of unbunded upland of Purulia district is very poor and it is acidic in nature, very low in organic matter and available plant nutrients.

Production System: Black gram based production system (Black gram – Fallow – Fallow).

Micro farming Situation:  Unbunded rainfed upland (Tanr), Season: Kharif 2017, Soil Type: Coarse textured, acidic, low in organic matter, low in water holding capacity and low in available plant nutrients (N,P,K). 

Technology for Testing: To study the effect of soil properties with yield of Black gram with soil test based and blanket recommendation of fertilizer.

Existing Practice: Farmers grow Black gram in kharif season in unbunded upland situation under rainfed condition. Farmers of this district apply only the ash and they are not following neither blanket recommendations given by the State Agriculture Department nor as per the recommendations done by Soil testing of a particular plot.

Hypothesis: Application of nutrients through soil test based fertilizer recommendation may increase the productivity of kharif Black gram.

Objective: To study the effect of soil test based fertilizer application on soil health and yield of Black gram.

Treatment:

Farmers Practice: Application of Ash @ 60 q./ha

Tech. Option – I: Farmers Practice + FYM/Compost @ 4t/ha + Inorganic Fertilizers (N:P:K; blanket/general recommendations)

Tech. Option – II: Farmers Practice + FYM/Compost @ 4t/ha + Soil test based fertilizer recommendations (N:P:K)

Critical Inputs: FYM/Compost, Inorganic Fertilizers

Unit Size: 0.13ha

No. of Replication: 10

Total Area: 1.3 ha

Unit Cost: Rs. 1500

Total Cost: Rs.15000

Monitoring Indicators:

  1. Soil pH before and after cultivation, b. Organic Matter content (%) before and after cultivation c. Water holding capacity (Keen Rackzosky box) before and after cultivation, d. Soil nutrient status before and after cultivation (Available N,P,K) e. Yield (t /ha), f. Net Return (Rs./ha), g. Benefit cost ratio.

Technology Source:

International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology (2016), 9(5): 801-806.

7.Title: Assessment of soil application of boron on yield and soil properties of kharif paddy under red and lateritic soils of Purulia District of West Bengal.

Thematic Area: Soil Health & Fertility Management (Integrated Nutrient Management)

Problem area: Paddy cultivation of this district is the primary crop during Kharif season. 77% of the net-cropped area is under Aman paddy cultivation. Out of the total agricultural holding about 73 % belongs to small and marginal farmers. The crops are grown mostly under rainfed condition, generally with low fertilizer and without micronutrient consumption. Thus per hectare production is also low as compared to other district of West Bengal.

Important causes: Boron deficiency occurs due to several factors including drought, low soil pH and B leaching and fixation. Declining productivity trends in rice growing countries are due to the micronutrient deficiencies. Boron (B) deficiency is of particular importance since it affects the flowering and plant reproductive process and therefore directly affects grain yield.

Production System: Kharif Paddy based production system (Kharif Paddy – Fallow – Fallow).

Micro farming Situation:  Bunded rainfed upland (Baid), Season: Kharif 2018, Soil Type: Coarse textured, acidic, low in organic matter, low in water holding capacity and low in available plant nutrients (N,P,K,B). 

Technology for Testing: To evaluate the effect of soil applied B on the grain yield and soil properties of kharif paddy.

Existing Practice: Farmers grow Paddy in kharif season in bunded upland situation under rainfed condition without application of micronutrient.

Hypothesis: Soil application of Boron may increase the productivity of Kharif Paddy and soil properties.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of soil applied B on the grain yield, soil properties and economic returns of paddy crop.

Treatment:

Farmers Practice: Application of FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + apply 40:30:30 kg/ha N:P:K as basal followed by 20 kg N/ha as top dressing at 30-35 DAT.

Tech. Option – I: Farmers Practice + Borax @ 10kg/ha (Soil application during final land preparation)

Tech. Option – II: Farmers Practice + Borax @ 5kg/ha (Soil application during final land preparation)

Critical Inputs: FYM/Compost, Inorganic Fertilizers (N:P:K:B)

Unit Size: 0.13ha

No. of Replication: 10

Total Area: 1.3 ha

Unit Cost: Rs. 2000.00

Total Cost: Rs.20000.00

Monitoring Indicators:

  1. Soil nutrient status before and after cultivation (Available N,P,K,B) b. No. of effective tillers/hill c. No. of spikelet per panicle d. Test wt. (100 grain wt.) e. Yield (t /ha), c. Net Return (Rs./ha), d. Benefit cost ratio.

Technology Source: International Journal of Chemical Studies. 5(5): 972-975.

8. Title: Assessment of application of Ash and Vermicompost to increase the bulb size in Kharif Onion in upland situation under rainfed condition in Kharif season of Purulia district, West Bengal

Thematic Area: Horticulture (Vegetable Crops) Off-season vegetables.

Problem Diagnosis:

Kharif onion is grown in unbunded upland situation under Rainfed condition in Purulia district to meet domestic requirement as well as for sale in the market. In most cases it is found that bulb size of Kharif onion is very small due to application of least amount of manures. The upland soil is acidic in nature and suffers from unavailability of nutrient during the season. Farmers use very less amount of Potash and manures during field preparation which is also one of the main reasons of small sized bulb.

Production System: Vegetable – Fallow – Fallow

Micro farming Situation: Rainfed condition, unbunded sloppy land situation, season – Kharif, soil type sandy soil, shallow soil depth (upto 6”).

Technology for Testing: Application of easy availability of ash and vermicompost as a remedial measure for increasing bulb size of Kharif onion.

Existing Practice: Farmers grow Kharif onion in unbunded upland situation under Rainfed condition by using minimum amount of FYM @ 600 q/ha and N:P:K. (General recommendations).

Hypothesis: Application of Ash and vermicompost during field preparation of Kharif onion will increase bulb size of onion and the farmers could get more profit by selling at the time when market demand is high.

Objective: To assess the shelf life of Kharif onion through application of ash and vermicompost during field preparation as a remedial measure to decrease the rotting of bulbs in Kharif onion after  harvesting to get higher market price at the time of market demand.

Treatment:

Farmers Practice: Application of FYM @ 600 q./ha and Inorganic Fertilizers (N:P:K; blanket/general recommendations)

Tech. Option – I: Farmers Practice + Ash @ 3t/ha + Inorganic Fertilizers (N:P:K; 100:50:50kg/ha during final land preparation)

Tech. Option – II: Farmers Practice + Ash @ 3t/ha + Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Inorganic Fertilizers (N:P:K; 100:50:50kg/ha during final land preparation)

Critical Inputs: Seed/ seedling, vermicompost

Unit Size: 0.04 ha

No. of Replication: 10 No.

Unit Cost: Rs. 5400.00

Total Cost: Rs. 54000.00

Monitoring Indicators: i)Average plant weight ii.) Average bulb weight (gm), iii) Average bulb length (cm), iv) Average bulb diameter (cm) v) Average Yield (q/ha) vi.) Net Return, vii) Benefit: Cost ratio

Technology Source: National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation (NHRDF), Nashik, Maharastra.

9.Title: Assessment of the 4-Row Multicrop planter for maintaining ideal plant population & drudgery reduction in Maize under Rainfed condition in bunded uplands of Red laterite zone of Purulia, West Bengal.

Thematic Area: Agriculture Engineering (Promotion of farm implements for Crop Production.)

Problem Area: In Purulia District, limited irrigation facilities are available for Maize cultivation especially during kharif in bunded upland situation. Presently, Maize is a promising crop of this particular type of land grown in about 2682 ha with an average yield of 18.2 q/ha. There is enough scope for horizontal expansion of Maize. Farmers of this particular region adopting traditional method for Maize sowing & it demands huge labour& time and resulting in the increase of the cost of production & finally with that a significant reduction in decrease of Net Return has been observed.. Moreover it has been noticed that poor Sowing technique is a major cause for reduction in production and productivity.

Important Cause: Cost of production has been increase day-by-day; it has observed that major expenditure on production has been incurred in connection with labour expenses. We are aware the fact that the cost of labour has been increasing and on the other hand the labour is not available at in the time of operation.

Production System: Maize– Fallow-Vegetable

Micro Farming situation: Rainfed bunded upland, season- Kharif, Soil type – sandy loam textured, acidic in nature (pH 4.8 – 5.8) low in available phosphate, potash and poor in organic matter content.

Technology for Testing: Effect of 4-Row Multicrop planter for maintaining ideal plant population & drudgery reduction in Maize under Rainfed condition

Existing Practice:-Farmer using broadcasting method for Maize cultivation in Kharif season at bunded upland situation.

Hypothesis: It has been reported in a no. of experiments in different parts of the country that using of 4-Row Multi-Crop Planter in the farmers field, the farmers may increase the productivity coupled with reduction in cost of Sowing Operation & ultimately leads to additional income with drudgery reduction. These technologies may help in water conservation, reducing soil erosion also.

Objective: – To assess the performance of 4-Row Multicrop planter over traditional process for maintaining ideal plant population & drudgery reduction in Maize under Rainfed condition during Kharif season.

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: – Line sowing method by traditional way for Maize (VNR-4226) (60cm X 20cm) cultivation during Kharif season

Technology option – I: Use of 4-Row Multicrop planter, for Maize (VNR-4226) (60cm X 20cm) cultivation during Kharif season.

Technology option – II: Use of 4-Row Multicrop planter, for Maize (VNR-4226) (60cm X 30 cm) cultivation during Kharif season.

Critical Inputs: Seed, Fertilizer, Pesticides.

Unit Size: 0.2 ha

No. of Replication: 10 Nos.

Unit Cost –Rs. 1200.00

Monitoring indicators: a) Plant Height (b) seed yield (q/ha), (c) labour (Man-hour/ha) (d) Gross cost (Rs./ha), (e) Net Return (Rs./ha), (f) B:C

Source of Technology: Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering-Bhopal

10.Title: Assessment of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) tools for increasing rice (Kharif) yield by managing pest and diseases in rainfed bunded uplands of Red and Lateritic tracts of Purulia.

Thematic Area: Others (Application of ICT in Agriculture).

Problem Area: In Rural areas of Purulia district there is lack of availability of area specific information on improved Agricultural Technologies. Most of the farmers don’t know about the usefulness of Information & Communication Technology tools in agriculture.Farmers are using conventional practices and they are influenced by locally followed techniques in agriculture.

Important Cause: Adoption of new technology is very limited in rural areas due to the risk factor. Unavailability of good network connection, low literacy level, limited web based information in local language has been found to be the important cause.

Production System: Rainfed Bunded Upland

Technology for Testing: Effect of application of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) tools for increasing yield in rice by management of pest and disease.

Existing Practice: Farmers do not use ICT tools for gaining information about improved agricultural practices.They generally follow techniques which their ancestors have been following in farming. They belief that locally followed practices are the best option in rice cultivation.

Hypothesis: If a farmer can get area specific updated knowledge related to rice farming with few touch of his mobile phone, then this will increase his income by reducing loss through effective pest and disease management techniques.

Objective: To study the effectiveness of ICT tools for increasing yield in kharif rice by management of pest and disease in Purulia district.

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: Farmers generally follow techniques which their ancestors and local people are following in cultivation of rice

Technology option – I: Use of agricultural websites (www.crri.nic.in) for gaining latest information about cultivation of rice.

Technology option – II: Use of mobile apps using “Rice Expert” for gaining information about cultivation of rice.

Critical Inputs: Android mobile phone, Internet connection.

Unit Size: 5 farmers.

No. of Replication: 04 Nos.

Unit Cost: Nil

Monitoring indicators: a) User friendly (Grading in A, B, C & D) b) Browsing time/day c) Percentage of loss due to pest attack d) Yield (q/ ha) e) Cost of technology f) Gross cost (Rs./ha) g) Net Return (Rs./ha)

Source of Technology: ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi.

 Rabi 2019-20

1.Title: Assessment of the effect of making earthen pots airtight by paint or old kitchen oil reduces farmers dependency on outside technologies like plastic drums under homestead condition for management of stored grain pests of Black gram in the of Red & Lateritic Region of Purulia District.

Thematic Area: Crop Production (Seed Production)

Problem Diagnosis: Black gram is widely cultivated in the Kharif season at the unbunded uplands of Purulia districts with area of 2244 ha, with a productivity of 674 kg/ha. The grains of Black gram have been found to be affected with stored grain pests when stored under the homestead storage condition and ‘Pulse Beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) has been found to be the major one. As much as 15-30%of what they produce for food, seed and sale purpose are damaged in homestead condition.

Important Cause: Lack of knowledge of scientific storage of pulses. Out of several problems, damage caused by Pulse Beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) has been found to the important cause.

Production System: Black gram based production system (Black gram-Fallow-Fallow)

Micro-farming system:  Resource poor and marginal farm families.

Technology for testing: Effect of different low cost/no cost approaches of management of Pulse Beetle.

Existing Practice: Farmers store pulses like Black gram in earthen pots without airtighting by paint or old kitchen oil for controlling stored grain pests.

Hypothesis: Pre-storage treatment like making earthen pots airtight by paint or old kitchen oil reduces farmers dependency on outside technologies like plastic drums.

Objective: To study the influence of different method of pre-soaking with organics on germination and field emergence of Black gram.

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: Farmers store Black gram seed in earthen pots without airtighting by paint or old kitchen oil for controlling stored grain pests.

Technology Option-I: Earthen pots airtight by old kitchen oil.

Technology Option-II: Earthen pots airtight by paint.

Critical Inputs: Seed, paint.

Unit Size: 10 kg grain X 3 treatments for one household

No of replication: 10

Unit Cost: Rs 1,000.00

Total Cost: Rs. 10,000.00

Monitoring indicators: Percentage of infested seed, Germination percentage at the end of storage, Field emergence (%),Gross Return (Rs./ha), Net Return (Rs./ha), B:C ratio.

Source of Technology: Innovations in Rural Extension- Case studies from Bangladesh. Paul Van Male, Ahmed Salahuddin, Noel P Magor, IRRI.

2.Title: Assessment of bio-effectiveness of low cost eco-friendly pesticide formulations against diseases of Tasar silk worm in Purulia district of West Bengal.

Thematic Area: Plant Protection (Integrated Disease Management)

Problem Area:  In Purulia district of west Bengal rearing of tasar silk worm rearing dates back to early 20th century and had been a common practice of the rural community especially among the tribal farmers. However, unscientific conventional rearing practice has led to more losses than return which thereby forced farmers to shift to other more profitable farming options leaving tasar cultivation to some very limited pockets of the district because of which the farmers fail to achieve minimum return and thus do not find the tasar silkworm cultivation as a profitable enterprise.

Important Cause:-Tasar silkworm rearing is done outdoor owing to the fact that the silkworms cannot be domesticated like that of Bombyx mori (mulberry silk worm). The optimum cocoon yield is drastically reduced due to several fungal, bacterial and viral diseases of tasar silkworm. Curative measures to keep in check the pest and diseases of silkworm cannot be undertaken and one has to rely on preventive measures to deal with the pest and disease management for which proper knowledge and skill is mandatory.

Therefore, bringing about some easy, low cost, eco-friendly silkworm disease management options might address the present problem effectively.

Technology for Testing:-Assessment of bio-effectiveness of Tasar Keet Ousadh (T.K.O) which is formulated by mixing para-formaldehyde, benzoic acid and slaked lime in the ratio 0.5:2:97.5, Jeevan Sudha which is mixture of 3 medicinal plants (aloe vera, kalmeg and bhoomiamla) in the ratio 2:1:1 and Jeevan Suraksha which is formulated by mixing lime, bleaching powder and turmeric in the ratio 8.5:1:0.5 against diseases of tasar silk worm

Existing Practice: –   Farmers are mostly unaware of the diseases of tasar silk worm and cultivate the crop in traditional conventional method which does not include any disease management option.

Hypothesis: – Experiments conducted in Central Tasar Research and Training Institute and different parts of the country shows that disease management using the above mentioned formulations as preventive approach has proven to effectively reduce the diseases of tasar silk worm thus rendering higher number of cocoons per 100 dfl which further ensured profit over conventional tasar cultivation.

Objective: – To assess the performance of Tasar Keet Ousadh (T.K.O), Jeevan Sudha and Jeevan Suraksha against diseases of tasar silk worm

Treatments:-

Farmers Practice: Farmers are mostly unaware of the diseases of tasar silk worm and do not undertake any management options for management of diseases of tasar silk worm

Technology option – I: Foliar spray of Jeevan Sudha only on branches where larvae are feeding once in each 1st , 2nd and 3rd instar+ Dusting with Tasar Keet Ousadh (T.K.O) on silkworm body during transfer of worms

Technology option – II: Foliar dusting of branches and below growing bushes with Jeevan Suraksha once in 2nd and 3rd instar+ T.K.O application on body of silkworm during transfer of worms

Technology option – III: Foliar spray of Jeevan Sudha only on branches where larvae are feeding once in each 1st , 2nd and 3rd instar+ Dusting with Jeevan Suraksha during transfer of worm during 4th and 5th instar

Critical Inputs: Tasar silkworm dfl, T.K.O, Jeevan Suraksha and Jeevan Sudha

Unit Size: 1 ha

No. of Replication:- 10 Nos.

Unit Cost – Rs. 3000.00

Total Cost:- Rs. 30,000.00

Monitoring Indicators:-  i)% reduction in disease of tasar silkworm ii)No. of marketable tasar cocoon per 100 dfl iii)Benefit Cost raito iv) Net return

Source of Technology :- Central Tasar Research and Training Institute (CTR & TI)

3.Title: Assessment of the different transplanting method by using vegetable transplanting machine for Proper transplantation and increasing profitability of Brinjal cultivation during Rabi season in Purulia, West Bengal

Thematic Area: Agriculture Engineering (Promotion of farm implements for Crop Production.)

Problem Area: In Purulia District, limited irrigation facilities are available for Brinjal cultivation, which is grown after kharif paddy in bunded upland situation. Presently, Brinjal is a promising crop of this particular type of land grown in about 8510 ha with an average yield of 19.8 q/ha and there is enough scope for horizontal expansion of Brinjal. Farmers of this particular region adopting traditional method for seedling & it demands huge labour & time and resulting in the increase of the cost of production & finally with that a significant reduction in decrease of Net Return has been observed. Moreover it has been noticed that poor Crop stand establishment is a major cause for reduction in production and productivity

Important Cause: Cost of production has been increase day-by-day; it has observed that major expenditure on production has been incurred in connection with labour expenses. We are aware the fact that the cost of labour has been increasing and on the other hand the labour is not available at in the time of operation.

Production System: Paddy –Vegetable-Fallow

Micro Farming situation: Irrigated bunded upland, season-Rabi, and Soil type-sandy loam textured, acidic in nature (pH 4.8-5.8) low in available phosphate, potash and poor in organic matter content.

Technology for Testing: Effect of different transplanting method using vegetable transplanting machine for Proper transplantation and increasing profitability of Brinjal cultivation.

Existing Practice: Farmer using traditional transplanting method for Brinjal cultivation.

Hypothesis: It has been reported in a no. of experiments in different parts of the country that using of Single seedling Vegetable transplanter the farmers may increase the productivity coupled with reduction in cost of transplantation ultimately leads to additional income with drudgery reduction. These technologies may help water conservation, reducing soil erosion also.

Objective: – To assess the performance of Single seedling vegetable transplanter over farmers practice for Proper transplantation and increasing profitability of Brinjal cultivation during Rabi Season.

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: –Farmers transplanted Single seedling at depth of 3 cm by hand.

Technology option – I: Transplanting Single seedling at depth of 5 cm by hand.

Technology option – II: Use of Single Seedling Vegetable Transplanting machine at 7.5 cm depth.

Critical Inputs: Seed, Fertilizer, Pesticides.

Unit Size: 0.2 ha

No. of Replication: 10 Nos.

Unit Cost –Rs. 1000.00

Monitoring indicators: a) No. of Fruits/plant (b) yield (q/ha), (c) labour (man-hour/ha), (d) Gross cost (Rs. /ha), (e) Net Return (Rs. /ha), (f) B: C ratio

Source of Technology: Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering-Bhopal, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri, (M.P.K.V)

SUMMER 2019-20

1.Title: Assessment of the different weeding technique for intercultural operation in yield & drudgery reduction of Green Chilli during summer season under Red & Lateritic Zone of Purulia, West Bengal.

Thematic Area: Agriculture Engineering (Promotion of Farm Implements for Crop Production.)

Problem Area: In Purulia District, limited irrigation facilities are available for Vegetable cultivation especially during summer in bunded upland situation. Presently, Green Chilli is a promising crop of this particular type of land and grown in about 1200 ha with an average yield of 1.8 q/ha. There is enough scope for horizontal expansion of Green Chilli. Farmers of this particular region adopting manual weeding method for intercultural operation in Green Chilli& it demands huge labour& time and resulting in the increase of the cost of production &finally with that a significant reduction in decrease of Net Return has been observed. Moreover it has been noticed that poor Intercultural Operation is a major cause for reduction in production and productivity.

Important Cause: Cost of production has been increase day-by-day.It has observed that major expenditure on production has been incurred in connection with labour expenses. We are aware the fact that the cost of labour has been increasing and on the other hand the labour is not available at in the time of operation.

Production System: Paddy-Fallow-Vegetable

Micro Farming situation: Irrigated bunded upland, season-Summer, and Soil type-sandy loam textured, acidic in nature (pH 4.8-5.8) low in available phosphate, potash and poor in organic matter content.

Technology for Testing: Effect of different weeding technique for intercultural operation in yield & drudgery reduction of Green Chilli during summer.

Existing Practice: Farmer using traditional method viz., hand weeding for Intercultural Operation in Green Chilli in summer.

Hypothesis: It has been observed during experiments in different parts of the country that by using of Motorized Weeder, the farmers may increase the productivity coupled with reduction in cost of Intercultural Operation. Which ultimately leads to additional income with reduction in drudgery? These technologies may help water conservation and reduction in soil erosion also.

Objective: –To assess the performance of different types of weeding technique over traditional method of Intercultural Operation on yield & drudgery reduction of Green Chilli during summer season.

Treatments:

Farmers Practice: Farmer using hand sickles for Intercultural Operation in Green Chilli (cv. Siam Hot) during summer season

Technology option – I: Use of Manual Weeder for Intercultural Operation in Chilli (Siam Hot) during summer season

Technology option –II: Use of Motorized Weeder for Intercultural Operation in Chilli (Siam Hot) during summer season

Critical Inputs: Seed, Fertilizer, Pesticides.

Unit Size: 0.2 ha

No. of Replication: 10 Nos.

Unit Cost –Rs. 1000.00

Monitoring indicators: a) Weeding Efficiency (b) seed yield (q/ha), (c) labour (Man-hour/ha) (d) Gross cost (Rs./ha), (e) Net Return (Rs./ha), (f) B:C

Source of Technology: International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (2019) 7(12): 1669-1675

2.Title: Assessment of low cost bottle trap for management of fruit fly in cucurbits growing in Red Laterite zone of Purulia, West Bengal.

Thematic Area: Plant Protection (Others) Crop Protection

Problem Area:  In Purulia where irrigation facilities are available cucurbitaceous vegetables are widely grown throughout summer/ Pre-Kharif season. However, little is done towards sustainable pest management .Irrational use of pesticides is the only available tool to farmers which results in increase of expenditure besides being harmful to ecosystem.

Important Cause:- Lack of knowledge about pests and crop ecosystem and poor economic conditions of the farmers in the district has led to overuse of pesticides or no use any management practice. Therefore, bringing about an alternative ecofriendly approach towards management of one the most important pests of cucurbitaceous vegetables could be an appropriate step to address the issue.

Production System: Okra-Tomato-Cucurbits

Micro Farming situation :- Irrigated medium land, season- Pre-Kharif, Soil type – sandy loam textured, acidic in nature (pH 4.8 – 5.8) low in available phosphate, potash and poor in organic matter content.

Technology for Testing :-Development of localized bottle traps incorporated with lures for management of fruit fly in cucurbitaceous vegetables

Existing Practice : –   Farmers are mostly unaware of the infestation of fruit fly and often mistaken with borer or disease of cucurbits and thereby apply fungicides or pesticides in heavy dosages.

Hypothesis :- Experiments conducted in different parts of the country shows that installation of traps with lures has effectively reduced the infestation of fruit fly in cucurbits, it is inexpensive, labour and time saving which therefore ensured profit over conventional pesticide use thus is an ecofriendly yet effective management option

Objective:- To assess the performance of low cost bottle trap with lure towards management of fruit fly in cucurbits.

Treatments:-

Farmers Practice: Farmers are unaware of the importance of this major pest and mistake it for the infestation of lepidopteran pests or disease of cucurbits and thus apply pesticides for control of the same

Technology option – I: Use of Bottle trap with lure (Cue lure)

Technology option – II: Technology option – I [Use of Bottle trap with lure (Cue lure)] + BAT (50g jiggery+10g Fipronil 5% SC in 5 l water) spray at an interval of 15 days

Critical Inputs: Seed, Fertilizer, Empty packaged drinking water bottles (500ml), Lures, Jaggery, Pesticides

Unit Size: 0.2 ha

No. of Replication:- 10 Nos.

Unit Cost – Rs. 500.00

Total Cost:- Rs. 5000.00

Monitoring Indicators:-  i) Total Yield/unit area (q/ha) ii) Marketable yield (q/ha) iii) % reduction in fruit fly infestation over farmers practice (FP) iv) Gross return v) Net return vi) Benefit Cost Ratio

Source of Technology: – Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore

Round the Year 2019-20

1.Title: Assessment of different techniques of nursery raising on the economic viability of vegetable seedlings throughout the year in Red and Lateritic Zone of Purulia District of West Bengal.

Thematic Area: Horticulture Vegetable crops (Nursery Raising).

Problem Diagnosis: Vegetable seedlings are grown in Purulia district for main season transplanting and also for income generation. In most cases it is found that nursery beds are prepared in open field and therefore seedlings die due to root rot or due to adverse weather climate.

Technology for Testing: Performance on use of germination tray for nursery raising of different vegetables throughout the year.

Existing Practice: Farmers prepare nursery bed in open field and seedlings get infected by fungus or destroyed due to adverse weather conditions of Purulia district.

Hypothesis: Use of germination tray for nursery raising of different vegetables throughout the year inside low cost poly house, the farmers get assured seedlings to transplant in the main field and also could get more profit by selling at the time when market demand is high.

Objective: To assess different techniques of nursery raising on the economic viability of vegetable seedlings throughout the year and decrease the fungal attack in seedlings to get assured planting material for main field transplantation and also to get higher market price at the time of market demand.

Treatment:

Farmers Practice: Seed Bed Preparation in open field with application of FYM.

Technology Option –I: Use of germination tray for nursery raising in open field condition and application of Fungicide as foliar spray @ 2gm lit-1 in the nursery bed after sowing of seeds at 7 days interval (3 times).

Technology Option-II: Use of germination tray for nursery raising inside low cost poly house and application of Fungicide as foliar spray @ 2gm lit-1 in the nursery bed after sowing of seeds at 7 days interval (3 times).

Critical Inputs: Germination tray, Seed, Fungicide, LDPE 100 micron

Unit Size: 50m2

No. of Replication: 10 No.

Unit Cost: Rs. 7500.00

Total Cost: Rs. 75000.00

Monitoring Indicators: i) Days to 50% germination, ii.) % Height of seedling (cm), iii) % of Fungal Attack, iv) Mortality % of Seedling, v) No. of Healthy Seedlings, vi.) Net Return, vii) Benefit: Cost ratio

Technology Source: Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore.

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